CVD / Chemical Vapor Deposition

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) is a process used to produce conformal thin film materials onto rigid or flexible substrates from the gaseous phase of one or more chemical precursors, which react with (and/or decompose on) the substrate surface. Depending on the CVD technique (e.g., LPCVD, PECVD, Hot filament/Catalytic CVD) and process conditions (substrate material, temperature, pressure, gas flow(s), reaction gas composition, etc.), various materials (e.g., Si, SiO2, Si3N4, SiC, transition metals, ZnO, carbon nanotubes, graphene) with a wide range of physicochemical properties can be grown. As deposition is controlled by chemical reaction of volatile precursors with the substrate surface, CVD can produce highly conformal coatings on structures of complex topography. CVD is widely used in the semiconductor industry for the fabrication of integrated circuits, optoelectronic devices, sensors, micro-electromechanical systems, solar cells, etc.

Tool

Thermocraft Inc.

Type

Home-made CVD system using 3-zone programmed heating elements

Coatings

Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDChs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, WSe­2, TaS2, etc., deposited either on Si substrates or on the corresponding transition metal foil. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures on Si substrates.

Reaction Gases

S, Se, Te, Ar, N, Ar/H

Process Parameters

Maximum temperature 1200oC
Ambient pressure

Substrate Size

3×3 cm2 (max)

Applications

Growth of TMDChs, VLS growth of ZnO, etc.

Additional Information

Dr. Spyros N. Yannopoulos, sny@iceht.forth.gr

Tool

Three home-made, Fully automated CVD reactors

Type

Horizontal Low Pressure CVD, Horizontal Atmospheric Pressure CVD, Vertical Hot-Wire Low Pressure CVD.

Coatings

W, Cu, WOx (x≤3), MoOx (x≤3), SnO2 (undoped and doped with: F, Er, Sb, P, Si, Ge), Va2O5, Ta2O5, Cu2O, MoS2.

Reaction Gases

Various chlorinated, metal-organic and organo-metallic precursors and dopants.
Other Gases: Nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon, Hydrogen, Hydrogen Sulfide.

Process Parameters

Dependent on the deposited film, from room temperature up to 600oC. Pressures varying from atmospheric to 100 mTorr.

Substrate Size

From samples of 1x1cm2 to 3” wafers

Applications

Metals (Cu, W), diffusion barriers (W), Hole or/and electron selective layers (WOx , MoOx) for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes and Solar Cells (OLEDs, OSCs), Electrochromic windows and Displays (WO3, MoO3), Insulators (Ta2O5) for gates and intermetal dielectrics for large area electronics, Transparent Conductive Oxides (SnO2 undoped and doped) for optoelectronics. Semiconductors for large area electronics (MoS2).

Additional Information

Dr. Dimitris Davazoglou, d.davazoglou@inn.demokritos.gr

Tool

Vacutec/1500 series plasma system

Type

PECVD, combo with RIE system (RF Frequency: 13.56MHz)

Coatings

SixNy

Reaction Gases

Silane in N2, Ammonia, Nitrogen

Process Parameters

Temperature: 20 – 300oC
Pressure: 10--500mTorr
RF power: 20-200W

Substrate Size

From samples of 1cm x 1cm up to 5 wafers of 4” in diameter

Applications

Passivation Coatings, Anti-reflective Coatings, RFMEMS dielectric, capacitor dielectric, etc.

Additional Information

George Stavrinidis, gstav@physics.uoc.gr

Tool

Home-made CCVD apparatus consisting of a Carbolite tubular furnace and two Omega digital mass flow-meters

Type

Catalytical Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) system

Coatings

N/A

Reaction Gases

Various hydrocarbon (H/C) gasses (carbon precursor): acetylene, methane, ethane, propane, etc; carrier (inert) gases: argon, nitrogen.

Process Parameters

Temperature up to 1000oC
H/C gas flow rate up to 20 cm3/min
Carrier gas flow rate up to 200 cm3/min.

Substrate Size

Ceramic or alumina crucibles for powder samples (capacity up to 50 ml); substrate size up to 10cm x 1.5cm

Applications

Growth of carbon nanostructured materials including single- and multi- wall carbon nanotubes and graphene; Carbonization process; Pyrolysis; Annealing of materials.

Additional Information

Prof. Dimitrios Gournis, dgourni@uoi.gr

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