DC-AC Meas / DC-AC Electrical Measurements

Electrical measurements are used to measure electrical quantities like potential difference (voltage), electric charge and current, resistance, capacitance and inductance. They allow to relate the characteristics of devices (e.g., resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes and transistors) and systems (e.g., MEMS, NEMS) to the intrinsic properties of materials and interfaces. Innovation-el offers access to a broad spectrum of electrical measurement tools, techniques and related analysis methods for the characterization of a wide range of materials (conductors, semiconductors and insulators), devices / test structures, circuits and systems.

These cover Current-Voltage (I-V) measurements with sub-μV and fA resolution, ultra-fast pulsed I-V measurements, Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) and Capacitance-frequency (C-f) measurements, DC and pulsed power measurements for high-voltage electronics and power semiconductors, Resistance measurements up to 1016Ω, Charge measurements from 10fC to 2 mC, etc. Automated stations and unique homemade setups are also available for VdP resistivity, AC/DC magnetometry, and Seebeck, Nernst, and Hall coefficient measurements at temperatures in the 1.8-320 K range.

Measurements of devices, circuits and systems can be performed by direct probing at the wafer level (probe station) using sharp needle-tipped probes. Testing of packaged devices is also supported. Home-built modular sample environments, equipped with custom-designed probes and digital measurement instruments are also available for use with samples in various forms (e.g. polycrystalline pellet, single crystal, films).


Wafer-level (probe-station) and packaged device semiconductor characterization equipment for precision DC and pulsed electrical characterization with high power and LCR measurements capabilities.

(1) Keithley 4200 SCS Parameter Analyser
Applications: DC and pulse device characterization, real-time plotting, and analysis with high precision and sub-fem to amp resolution.
(a) DC source & measure 5 fA – 1 A, (b) DC source & measure 0.2 µV – 210 V, (c) Pulsed I-V Range: ±40 V (80 V p-p), ±800 mA, 200 MSa/sec, 5 ns sampling rate

(2) Keithley 2602A Dual-Channel System Source Meter
Applications: DC and pulse device characterization
(a) 3A DC to 10A Pulse, (b) Pulse width 100μs and longer

(3) Keithley 2651A High Power System Source-Meter instrument
Applications: DC and pulse high power characterization
(a) ± 100mV to ± 40V, (b) ± 100nA to ± 50A / 2KW

(4) Keithley 6517A Electrometer / High Resistance Meter
Applications: Current / Voltage / Resistance / Charge measurements
(a) 1fA to 20mA, (b) 10μV to 200V , (c) Resistance measurements up to 1016Ω, (d) Charge measurements from 10fC to 2 mC, (e) Built-in ±1KV voltage source.

(5) 4284A Precision LCR Meter
Applications: Capacitance / Inductance measurements
20Hz to 1MHz test frequency range

(6) Automated DC VpD resistivity-Hall measurement station
Applications: Hall measurements
(a) 20 GΩ-100TΩ input impedance configurations, (b) RT or 77K, (c) μmin = 1cm2/Vs

(7) M4C setup
Applications: Homemade setup with COTS system for AC and double AC modulated measurements (Hall, Seebeck, Nernst)
(a) 1mHz to 100 Hz, (b) sub-Johnson noise measurements capabilities, (c) Includes open cycle LHe or LN2 cryostat.

(8) MagLab-EXA 2000 setup
Applications: Multi-measurement system (Oxford Instruments) for automated materials characterisation (e.g. magneto-transport, Hall effect, AC/DC magnetometry etc) by using different probes and samples in diverse morphologies, ranging from films to (nano)crystals.
(a) High magnetic field (H= 0-7 Tesla), (b) Low-temperature LHe cryostat (T= 1.8-320 K), (c) DC resistivity in a standard 4-wire configuration (10 μΩ - 10 MΩ), (d) DC moment extraction (~10-4 emu), (e) AC susceptibility (~10-6 emu), f= 0.01-10 kHz.

(9) Custom-made Magneto-electric workstation
Applications: Programmable physical property measurements (e.g. magneto-transport, Seebeck coefficient, magneto-dielectric response, pyro-electric current etc), with a home-built modular sample environment, equipped with custom-designed probes, and digital measurement instruments for use with samples in various forms (e.g. polycrystalline pellet, single crystal, films).
(a) High magnetic field (H= 0-7 Tesla), (b) Continuous flow cryostat (T= 1.8-320 K)
(c) Low noise voltage (down to 50 nV) and resistance measurements, 4-probe: Keithley 6221 DC & AC Current Source or 2400 SourceMeter / Keithley 2182A Nanovoltometer
(d) High resistance (> 1 GΩ), low current (~1 fA) and charge (~fC to μC), 2-probe: Keithely 6517B & 6517A
(e) Dielectric permittivity: 20 Hz to 2 MHz, DC-bias ±40 V (LCR Meter Agilent E4980A) / 50 Hz-20 kHz (capacitance bridge AH 2700)

Additional Information

For (1) to (5): Ms Maria Kayambaki, mmic@physics.uoc.gr
For (6) & (7): Prof Eleftherios Iliopoulos, iliopoul@physics.uoc.gr
For (8) & (9): Dr. Alexandros Lappas, lappas@iesl.forth.gr

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provided at Innovation-el by:
IESL/FORTH Heraklion