VSM/Vibrating Sample Magnetometry

Vibrating Sample Magnetometry is a method of investigation and study of the magnetic properties of materials. The method is based on detecting the magnetic flux variation, induced by the periodic movement (vibration) of a sample of the material in study inside a uniform external applied magnetic field (H), passing through special sensing pick-up coils, suitably positioned near the vibrating sample.

Basic characterization of the overall magnetic state of the material, such as determination of the diamagnetic or paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic susceptibilities (χ), or ferromagnetic-ferrimagnetic magnetization(s) (M or σ) can be conducted using VSM measurements, in a range of temperatures (T) and applied magnetic fields. Moreover, information on the magnetic properties of soft and hard ferromagnetic-ferrimagnetic materials, such as saturation (MS) and remnant (MR) magnetizations, coercive fields (HC) and Curie temperatures (TC), as well as Néel temperatures (TN) for antiferromagnetic materials can be extracted. The superparamagnetic properties of nanostructured magnetic materials can also be studied by VSM.

VSM is a non-destructive technique and the measuring procedure requires a relatively small amount of sample mass, usually in the range of a few to a few tens of mg. Samples should be in the solid state, in the form of loose or compressed powder, compact piece(s) or crystal(s). Special sample forms of foils and films can also be successfully measured.


LakeShore 7300 Series Vector VSM System
Max external applied magnetic field 20 kOe (~1.59 MA/m)
Max magnetic moment sensitivity 5x10-6 emu (5x10-9 Am2)
Max measuring magnetic moment 103 emu (1 Am2)


Isothermal ‘hysteresis’ M vs H loops, M vs T under constant H.
Characterization of the magnetic properties of samples.
Magnetic susceptibility χ.
Saturation (MS) and remnant (MR) magnetizations, coercive fields (HC).
Curie (TC) and Néel (TN) temperatures.

Sample specifications

Typical: powder, compact piece(s), crystal(s).
Special cases: foils, films.

Additional Tools

Vector VSM: the components of the magnetic moment of the sample in two mutually vertical axes, x-in the direction of the applied magnetic field and y-in vertical direction to the applied magnetic field can be measured simultaneously.
Sample rotation on the x-y plane: 360 degrees.
Magnetic moment vs time measurements.
Magnetoresistance measurements of compressed powders, foils and films at room temperature.

Additional Information

Alexios Douvalis (adouval@uoi.gr)

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