XPS- UPS-Auger / X-RAY & UV photoelectron spectroscopy, AUGER electron spectroscopy
X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy is a non-destructive surface sensitive technique for solid surfaces. It is based on the kinetic energy analysis of photoelectrons, which originate mainly from the core levels of the atoms in a solid, when this is exposed to x-rays (hν=1-1,5 KeV). The Kinetic Energy of the peaks in an XPS spectrum characterizes the kind of atoms [qualitative analysis] and their chemical environment on the surface [chemical shifts]. The peak area gives information about the atomic concentration or stoichiometry [Quantitative analysis]. In case of multilayer thin films (total thickness<10nm), the thickness of each interlayer can be determined.
Similar to XPS, Ultra violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), using UV radiation (hν=10-45 eV) the valence levels can be examined. The Work function of the materials and the Ionization Potential of organic materials can be determined.
In Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) electrons that originate from Auger transitions are detected and recorded, according to their Kinetic Energy, when a solid surface is illuminated by an electron beam (103 - 105 eV). The chemical shifts give information about the type of the chemical bonds and about the charge transfer on the surface.
XPS/AES can be used for depth profiling in combination with the ion-sputtering gun.
UHV Phoibos 100/ 1D-DLD detector
Surface analysis, chemical composition, depth profiling, in-situ gas reactions
Pellets, powder, fibers, films. Sample maximum height 2mm
Hemispherical electron energy analyser SPECS (Phoibos 100)
Non-monochromatized dual anode Μg/Al [MgKα (1253.6eV) and AlKα (1486.6eV)]
SPECS EQ 22/35 (Electron energies: 0.02-5 KeV)
XPS/UPS:7x10mm2 up to 0.2x10mm2 and spot 1mm2, AES: 100μm2
SpecsLab Prodigy (by Specs GmbH, Berlin)
Sample manipulator with 3 positions, one of which can be heated up to 900oC and can be biased.
Dr. Lamprini Sygellou, email@example.com