XRD /X-Ray Diffraction

X-Ray Diffraction is a well-known technique for the investigation of the structure of crystalline solids and powders. X-rays wavelength is between the ultraviolet and gamma rays in the electromagnetic spectrum, and its magnitude is of the same order of interatomic distances in crystals. Depending on the x-ray wavelength, crystal orientation and structure, a beam of X-rays falling on a crystal undergoes diffraction. The x-ray beam interacts with the electron density of atoms or ions of the crystal lattice, thus producing a specific electron map for the crystalline material investigated. Each crystal has a unique pattern and X-Ray diffraction gives a fingerprint of the studied material. The data collected from the reflections at various angles are analysed according to Bragg' s law. Powder X-ray Diffraction is widely used both for the qualitative analysis of crystalline materials and for the quantitative measurements of crystalline components in composite materials.

The facility includes diffractometers ranging from powder to single crystal XRD equipped with several different stages and reactors like high temperature furnaces for gas-solid catalytic reactions.

Tool

R-Axis Spider Area Detector System for single crystal and powder samples studies

Applications

Single crystal analysis

Source

Cu, Mo radiation (3 kW)

Geometry

Three circle goniometer

Optics

collimators (conventional and capillary optics), primary pyrolytic graphite monochromator

Detectors

Curved large area Image plate detector

Sample Holders

Goniometer heads for sample mounting

Stages

X-Sream 2000. Low temperature unit, with Nitrogen generator, He compressor, stainless steel hose and nozzle for delivery of nitrogen on the sample. Temperature range operation: 100K-RT.

Other Capabilities

Measurement of single crystals with 1mm size and smaller and powder samples in capillaries

Analysis Software

Crystal Clear, WINGX(GUI), OLEX-2(GUI), SIR, SHELXS-SHELXL

Additional Information

Dr C. Raptopoulou, c.raptopouloy@inn.demokritos.gr
Dr V. Psycharis, v.psycharis@inn.demokritos.gr

Tool

BRUKER D8 ADVANCE

Applications

Phase identification, crystallite size, crystallinity, gas-solid reactions up to 1173K

Source

CuKa radiation (1,6kW)

Geometry

Bragg-Brentano geometry (0-1600)

Optics

Parallel beam optics, diffracted beam monochromator, soller slits, knife edge collimators

Detectors

2 detectors : one scintillation detector (0D) and one 1D (strip)

Sample Holders

Holders for powders, Zero back ground holders (ZBH), custom made holders

Sample Holder - Stage

One standard, one rotational, one for thin film analysis, one reactor for high temperature gas-solid reactions

Other Capabilities

Rocking curve, ω scan

Analysis Software

DIFFRACplus-TOPAS R, DIFFRACplus-LEPTOS 4, DIFFRACplus- EVA

Additional Information

Dr. Vasileios Dracopoulos, indy@iceht.forth.gr

Tool

BEDE D1 Triple Axis High Resolution XRD

Applications

Single crystal analysis

Source

Siemens - Sealed X-ray tube [CuKa radiation (2kW)]

Geometry

Three circle goniometer

Optics

3 Si cut crystals with one channel symmetric to the 022 planes and one asymmetric to 022 planes. Slits

Detectors

Scintillation detector

Sample Holder - Stage

100XY sample stage with X,Y, rotation and tilt sample manipulation capability

Other Capabilities

Reciprocal Space Mapping, Specimen area mapping

Analysis Software

PeakSplit, RADS Mercury, Bede Contour

Additional Information

Katerina Tsagaraki, ktsag@physics.uoc.gr

Tool

D500 SIEMENS (θ/2θ)

Applications

Phase identification, crystallite size, crystallinity

Source

CuKa radiation (3 kW)

Geometry

Bragg-Brentano/parafocusing

Optics

slits/soller slits/ secondary pyrolitic graphite monochromator

Detectors

Scintillation detector (0D)

Sample Holders

Sample holders for powders, thin films and zero background plates for measuring samples of small quantity.

Stages

Standard stage using the 40-position sample changer

Other Capabilities

the independent movement of θ or 2θ angles give the possibility to perform ω scan or rocking curve measurements

Analysis Software

JADE 7, PDXL 2, Fullprof, Profex

Additional Information

Dr V. Psycharis, v.psycharis@inn.demokritos.gr

Tool

Smart Lab Rigaku diffractometer (θ/θ scan)

Applications

Phase identification, crystallite size, crystallinity

Source

CuKa radiation (3 kW)

Geometry

Bragg-Brentano/parafocusing

Optics

slits/soller slits/ secondary pyrolitic graphite monochromator), DCO mirror for reflectivity measurements

Detectors

Scintilation detector (0D)

Sample Holders

Sample holders for powders, thin films and zero background plates for measuring samples of small quantity.

Stages

Standard stage for powders, thin film attachment (4” wafers)

Other Capabilities

Slit system, sample mounting stage and vacuum path unit for SAXS (small angle X-ray measurements)

Analysis Software

JADE 7, PDXL 2, Fullprof, Profex

Additional Information

Dr V. Psycharis, v.psycharis@inn.demokritos.gr

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